2) According to Jung, "primitive" peoples are more inclined to associate personalities to animals, trees, and stones, as well as animals to people. These associations then turn into seemingly irrational beliefs. For instance, a man might believe that he's a parrot, and the rest of his society will concur. Others might believe that their soul is bound to a particular tree, and whatever happens to this tree will happen to them. In modern society, we've drawn firmer lines between ourselves and other things. How did this transition take place? Did religion play a role? Were the middle ages a period of evolution, albeit a painful one? Was the modern tendency towards science seeded and nurtured by the dualism of Christianity?
3) "What we find instead of God is a neurosis or something worse, and the fear of God has changed into a phobia or anxiety neurosis. The emotion remains the same, only its object has changed its name and nature for the worse" (Jung, The Language of Dreams, 466). Idea worth exploring. People have cyclical emotional states. The religious and spiritual can externalize these emotions, while the secular internalize them. Alternatively, the secular can externalize them onto situations or other people. They can blame a lover or employer for the cyclical feelings of despair that haunt us all. Perhaps this is what leads the unrooted to move from lover to lover, from job to job, from city to city.